Language is a symbolized medium of communication to be provided in order to manage interaction from one to others. Language also gives us identical personality from individual differentiation. It is commonly implied with our understanding about one’s personality that is recognized by the way they provide language.
Culture is a sphere that consists of fragments. One of them is language. Culture changes certainly can change language shape, idiomatic structure, and so forth. Culture is hoped to be a composition in acquiring language. By understanding and observing culture, it is easier to acquire a certain language, which is originated from its culture it is from. Culture might bring different parts from that in each part of the world. That difference takes us to curiosity to dig more to know every aspects of life.
I, personally, through this work, shall be able to distinguish a different shape of language in Javanese environment, which applies several levels of language. In doing this, first we should recognize what kind of understandable point we can mark to move further to the ultimate point, which is not able to be reached out by our brain only a short timing as a blink of eyes do.
Ultimately, being clarified and discussed, the language is hopefully known with its function, which applies as part of ongoing-culture. The flexibility of language itself is depended on the run of characteristics of culture itself. Our duty is to discover the relationship between those parts from one to another.
According to the fact, there are two local languages as common. Specifically, it would be simpler discussing one language only which contains correlation of similarities of them both.
In this session, Javanese is going to be discussed as it is personally more familiar to me. So it is possible to dig deeper into its core.
The followings are sampling dialogue of Javanese:
Bejo : Kula nuwun … !
B. Supinem : Mangga! O, nak Bejo. Kene, mlebu!
Bejo : Inggih matur sembah nuwun.
B. Supinem : Ono opo le?
Bejo : Saderengipun nyuwun pangapunten, Bu. Menika kula diutus bapak ngaturaken serat sedhahan kangge rapat mangke dalu. Menika seratipun.
B. Supinem : Iya, kesuwun. Bapakmu mau ngomong apa?
Bejo : Nggih namung kula dipunutus ngaturaken serat menika kemawon. Menawi mekaten kula nyuwun pamit rumiyin, Bu…
B. Supinem : Lho, kok kesusu?
Bejo : Inggih sampun, Mboten sisah. Kula selak kesesa badhe dhateng dalemipun pak Joko.
B. Supinem : Ya wes yen ngono ngati-ati!!
Compare with this one:
Bejo : Rif, kapan klenceran maneh?
Arif : Terserah awakmu, Jo…
Bejo : Lek klenceran maneh, ojo sore-sore…Mulih’e iku lo kebengen…
Arif : Iyo, Jo!! La wingi awak dewe kan ngenteni Wisnu…Wisanu kuwi lo siang nggarai suwi…
Bejo : Yo weslah…Sesuk lek klenceran maneh ngomong’o nang Wisnu dhisek…Ojo dhadhakan…Ngono carane yo Wisnu gak ono persiapan…
Arif : Siap, Komandan!!
Bejo : Heh, awakmu digolek’i makmu…
Arif : Opo jare?
Bejo : Yo mboh…Ndangan..
Supreme language in Javanese is commonly called Krama, and the lower level of language in Javanese is called Ngoko. The breakdown of Krama is Krama Andhap, Krama Lugu, and Krama Alus. In the suburban area, there commonly people make conversation through Krama Andhap. Still in this area, the senior citizens use Krama Lugu to establish communication with their generation fellows. As for the younger people, Krama Alus is used to speak to senior citizens. Therefore, the level of Javanese used currently by Bejo is Krama Alus.
The lower offspring of Javanese used commonly is Ngoko Lugu and Ngoko Alus. However, they both are not able to have a call formal language. Ngoko Lugu is said to be the lowest level of Javanese offspring. It is often found in daily life that is spoken directly by young generation to their fellows within the similar level.
Ngoko Alus is not either a formal language, even it sounds softer than Ngoko Lugu. This degree applies insertion of Krama vocabulary so that it is easily identified its basic characteristics that straightly differs from Ngoko Lugu. For more detail, the example will be given below.
“Panjenengan kok ora saghet tindak mriko Pak?”.
Through this dialogue, it is very obviously shown the difference between Ngoko Lugu and Ngoko Alus. We can infer that the dialogue is structured in Ngoko Alus. Specifically, the following vocabulary has made transformation level from Ngoko Lugu into Ngoko Alus.
Those words are taken from Krama level. Those on Ngoko Lugu will be the following:
Having applied vocabulary from Krama level, the basic pattern of that sentence, which was originated from Ngoko Lugu, it has transformed into Ngoko Alus. This pattern of sentence is usually used by young people when they meet novices. This language function is to impress them, who are the novices, good manner.
In Ngoko Lugu, the display of that sentence may look like this:
“Sampeyan kok ora iso budhal mrono, Pak?”
In doing on the sentence, without giving any other transformation, it is categorized Ngoko Lugu. It is the basic point of language that Ngoko Alus has transformed from.
Javanese is applied in different places in Java Island. That used in Yogyakarta is the supreme level known as a matter of fact that it is the first place that language has taken. It is the main area of Javanese.
Also, Javanese is used in Surabaya, Banyuwangi, Gresik, and others. Javanese in each of those places are different from one to another. Each part has their own division in applying Javanese. Furthermore, many sources imply that difference has been there due to effect of culture, which is different too from one to another.
There are many ways to establish communication in Javanese. Since, there are factors that may make difference from one place to another. It is culture. Culture may be defined as ways of life. Therefore, Javanese spoken in different places is also different. This is caused by the way the people live their life.
Still, Javanese also has different level for communication for each generation. It is also affected by culture movement in order to maintain former Javanese culture. Beyond that, Javanese also contains codes that guide its people to go with ways how they should behave in Javanese life.
As not to leave this work with no further attention, there is importance to do more with this. Since there have been mistakes, errors, and has been misinformed in obtaining data; I recommend others, who take this paper for reading material to expand knowledge, review and study to give advanced addition to complete more comprehensible on this writing. Personally, I suggest a better instruction for future which is step by step may reach the closest perfection with the work.