Some and Any

Questions

-          Do you need some pencils?

-          Do you need any pencils?

 

Affirmative statement:

-          I need some pencils

Negative statement:

-          I don’t need any pencils.

 

  1. Some digunakan untuk menyatakan atau menunjukka jumlah yang tak tentu pada objek yang bisa , dihitung (some pencils, some books, some students) ataupun yang tak bisa dihitung, dalam hal ini haya menunjukkan kuantitas yang tak ditentukan pada objek yang tak bisa dihitung (some milk, some bread, some fruit)
  2. Saat suatu pernyataan negative digunakan, any digunakan untuk menggantikan some.
  3. Some dan any sama-sama digunakan dalam bentuk pertanyaan.

 

 

Perhatikan kalimat positif tentang John berikut ini. Buatlah pernyataan negative tentang Paul.

John needs some pencils

PAUL DOES NOT NEED ANY PENCILS

John is buying some books

PAUL IS NOT BUYING ANY BOOKS.

  • John is buying some apples
  • John is singing some songs.
  • John is repeating some words.
  • John is looking at some pictures.
  • John is moving some chairs.
  • John is making some sandwiches.
  • John is eating some apples.
  • John needs some books.
  • John wants some sandwiches.
  • John has some stamps.
  • John sees some flowers.
  • John wants some magazines.
  • John needs some new shirts.
  •  
  • John has some letters.
  • John sees some grammar books.
  • John needs some red ink.
  • John is going to buy some ink.
  • John is going to buy some letters.
  • John is going to read some books.
  • John is going to drink some coffee.
  • John is going to make some sandwiches.
  • John is going to have some milk.
  • John is going to eat some fruit.

STEPHEN HAWKING: How to build a time machine

All you need is a wormhole, the Large Hadron Collider or a rocket that goes really, really fast

Stephen Hawking‘Through the wormhole, the scientist can see himself as he was one minute ago. But what if our scientist uses the wormhole to shoot his earlier self? He’s now dead. So who fired the shot?’

Hello. My name is Stephen Hawking. Physicist, cosmologist and something of a dreamer. Although I cannot move and I have to speak through a computer, in my mind I am free. Free to explore the universe and ask the big questions, such as: is time travel possible? Can we open a portal to the past or find a shortcut to the future? Can we ultimately use the laws of nature to become masters of time itself?

Time travel was once considered scientific heresy. I used to avoid talking about it for fear of being labelled a crank. But these days I’m not so cautious. In fact, I’m more like the people who built Stonehenge. I’m obsessed by time. If I had a time machine I’d visit Marilyn Monroe in her prime or drop in on Galileo as he turned his telescope to the heavens. Perhaps I’d even travel to the end of the universe to find out how our whole cosmic story ends.

To see how this might be possible, we need to look at time as physicists do – at the fourth dimension. It’s not as hard as it sounds. Every attentive schoolchild knows that all physical objects, even me in my chair, exist in three dimensions. Everything has a width and a height and a length.

But there is another kind of length, a length in time. While a human may survive for 80 years, the stones at Stonehenge, for instance, have stood around for thousands of years. And the solar system will last for billions of years. Everything has a length in time as well as space. Travelling in time means travelling through this fourth dimension.

To see what that means, let’s imagine we’re doing a bit of normal, everyday car travel. Drive in a straight line and you’re travelling in one dimension. Turn right or left and you add the second dimension. Drive up or down a twisty mountain road and that adds height, so that’s travelling in all three dimensions. But how on Earth do we travel in time? How do we find a path through the fourth dimension?

Let’s indulge in a little science fiction for a moment. Time travel movies often feature a vast, energy-hungry machine. The machine creates a path through the fourth dimension, a tunnel through time. A time traveller, a brave, perhaps foolhardy individual, prepared for who knows what, steps into the time tunnel and emerges who knows when. The concept may be far-fetched, and the reality may be very different from this, but the idea itself is not so crazy.

Physicists have been thinking about tunnels in time too, but we come at it from a different angle. We wonder if portals to the past or the future could ever be possible within the laws of nature. As it turns out, we think they are. What’s more, we’ve even given them a name: wormholes. The truth is that wormholes are all around us, only they’re too small to see. Wormholes are very tiny. They occur in nooks and crannies in space and time. You might find it a tough concept, but stay with me.

Enlarge Time travel through a wormholeA wormhole is a theoretical ‘tunnel’ or shortcut, predicted by Einstein’s theory of relativity, that links two places in space-time – visualised above as the contours of a 3-D map, where negative energy pulls space and time into the mouth of a tunnel, emerging in another universe. They remain only hypothetical, as obviously nobody has ever seen one, but have been used in films as conduits for time travel – in Stargate (1994), for example, involving gated tunnels between universes, and in Time Bandits (1981), where their locations are shown on a celestial map

Nothing is flat or solid. If you look closely enough at anything you’ll find holes and wrinkles in it. It’s a basic physical principle, and it even applies to time. Even something as smooth as a pool ball has tiny crevices, wrinkles and voids. Now it’s easy to show that this is true in the first three dimensions. But trust me, it’s also true of the fourth dimension. There are tiny crevices, wrinkles and voids in time. Down at the smallest of scales, smaller even than molecules, smaller than atoms, we get to a place called the quantum foam. This is where wormholes exist. Tiny tunnels or shortcuts through space and time constantly form, disappear, and reform within this quantum world. And they actually link two separate places and two different times.

Unfortunately, these real-life time tunnels are just a billion-trillion-trillionths of a centimetre across. Way too small for a human to pass through – but here’s where the notion of wormhole time machines is leading. Some scientists think it may be possible to capture a wormhole and enlarge it many trillions of times to make it big enough for a human or even a spaceship to enter.

Given enough power and advanced technology, perhaps a giant wormhole could even be constructed in space. I’m not saying it can be done, but if it could be, it would be a truly remarkable device. One end could be here near Earth, and the other far, far away, near some distant planet.

Theoretically, a time tunnel or wormhole could do even more than take us to other planets. If both ends were in the same place, and separated by time instead of distance, a ship could fly in and come out still near Earth, but in the distant past. Maybe dinosaurs would witness the ship coming in for a landing.

The fastest manned vehicle in history was Apollo 10. It reached 25,000mph. But to travel in time we’ll have to go more than 2,000 times faster

Now, I realise that thinking in four dimensions is not easy, and that wormholes are a tricky concept to wrap your head around, but hang in there. I’ve thought up a simple experiment that could reveal if human time travel through a wormhole is possible now, or even in the future. I like simple experiments, and champagne.

So I’ve combined two of my favorite things to see if time travel from the future to the past is possible.

Let’s imagine I’m throwing a party, a welcome reception for future time travellers. But there’s a twist. I’m not letting anyone know about it until after the party has happened. I’ve drawn up an invitation giving the exact coordinates in time and space. I am hoping copies of it, in one form or another, will be around for many thousands of years. Maybe one day someone living in the future will find the information on the invitation and use a wormhole time machine to come back to my party, proving that time travel will, one day, be possible.

In the meantime, my time traveller guests should be arriving any moment now. Five, four, three, two, one. But as I say this, no one has arrived. What a shame. I was hoping at least a future Miss Universe was going to step through the door. So why didn’t the experiment work? One of the reasons might be because of a well-known problem with time travel to the past, the problem of what we call paradoxes.

Paradoxes are fun to think about. The most famous one is usually called the Grandfather paradox. I have a new, simpler version I call the Mad Scientist paradox.

I don’t like the way scientists in movies are often described as mad, but in this case, it’s true. This chap is determined to create a paradox, even if it costs him his life. Imagine, somehow, he’s built a wormhole, a time tunnel that stretches just one minute into the past.

Stephen Hawking in a scene from Star TrekHawking in a scene from Star Trek with dinner guests from the past, and future: (from left) Albert Einstein, Data and Isaac Newton

Through the wormhole, the scientist can see himself as he was one minute ago. But what if our scientist uses the wormhole to shoot his earlier self? He’s now dead. So who fired the shot? It’s a paradox. It just doesn’t make sense. It’s the sort of situation that gives cosmologists nightmares.

This kind of time machine would violate a fundamental rule that governs the entire universe – that causes happen before effects, and never the other way around. I believe things can’t make themselves impossible. If they could then there’d be nothing to stop the whole universe from descending into chaos. So I think something will always happen that prevents the paradox. Somehow there must be a reason why our scientist will never find himself in a situation where he could shoot himself. And in this case, I’m sorry to say, the wormhole itself is the problem.

In the end, I think a wormhole like this one can’t exist. And the reason for that is feedback. If you’ve ever been to a rock gig, you’ll probably recognise this screeching noise. It’s feedback. What causes it is simple. Sound enters the microphone. It’s transmitted along the wires, made louder by the amplifier, and comes out at the speakers. But if too much of the sound from the speakers goes back into the mic it goes around and around in a loop getting louder each time. If no one stops it, feedback can destroy the sound system.

The same thing will happen with a wormhole, only with radiation instead of sound. As soon as the wormhole expands, natural radiation will enter it, and end up in a loop. The feedback will become so strong it destroys the wormhole. So although tiny wormholes do exist, and it may be possible to inflate one some day, it won’t last long enough to be of use as a time machine. That’s the real reason no one could come back in time to my party.

Any kind of time travel to the past through wormholes or any other method is probably impossible, otherwise paradoxes would occur. So sadly, it looks like time travel to the past is never going to happen. A disappointment for dinosaur hunters and a relief for historians.

But the story’s not over yet. This doesn’t make all time travel impossible. I do believe in time travel. Time travel to the future. Time flows like a river and it seems as if each of us is carried relentlessly along by time’s current. But time is like a river in another way. It flows at different speeds in different places and that is the key to travelling into the future. This idea was first proposed by Albert Einstein over 100 years ago. He realised that there should be places where time slows down, and others where time speeds up. He was absolutely right. And the proof is right above our heads. Up in space.

This is the Global Positioning System, or GPS. A network of satellites is in orbit around Earth. The satellites make satellite navigation possible. But they also reveal that time runs faster in space than it does down on Earth. Inside each spacecraft is a very precise clock. But despite being so accurate, they all gain around a third of a billionth of a second every day. The system has to correct for the drift, otherwise that tiny difference would upset the whole system, causing every GPS device on Earth to go out by about six miles a day. You can just imagine the mayhem that that would cause.

The problem doesn’t lie with the clocks. They run fast because time itself runs faster in space than it does down below. And the reason for this extraordinary effect is the mass of the Earth. Einstein realised that matter drags on time and slows it down like the slow part of a river. The heavier the object, the more it drags on time. And this startling reality is what opens the door to the possibility of time travel to the future.

Right in the centre of the Milky Way, 26,000 light years from us, lies the heaviest object in the galaxy. It is a supermassive black hole containing the mass of four million suns crushed down into a single point by its own gravity. The closer you get to the black hole, the stronger the gravity. Get really close and not even light can escape. A black hole like this one has a dramatic effect on time, slowing it down far more than anything else in the galaxy. That makes it a natural time machine.

I like to imagine how a spaceship might be able to take advantage of this phenomenon, by orbiting it. If a space agency were controlling the mission from Earth they’d observe that each full orbit took 16 minutes. But for the brave people on board, close to this massive object, time would be slowed down. And here the effect would be far more extreme than the gravitational pull of Earth. The crew’s time would be slowed down by half. For every 16-minute orbit, they’d only experience eight minutes of time.

The Large Hadron Collider

Inside the Large Hadron Collider

Around and around they’d go, experiencing just half the time of everyone far away from the black hole. The ship and its crew would be travelling through time. Imagine they circled the black hole for five of their years. Ten years would pass elsewhere. When they got home, everyone on Earth would have aged five years more than they had.

So a supermassive black hole is a time machine. But of course, it’s not exactly practical. It has advantages over wormholes in that it doesn’t provoke paradoxes. Plus it won’t destroy itself in a flash of feedback. But it’s pretty dangerous. It’s a long way away and it doesn’t even take us very far into the future. Fortunately there is another way to travel in time. And this represents our last and best hope of building a real time machine.

You just have to travel very, very fast. Much faster even than the speed required to avoid being sucked into a black hole. This is due to another strange fact about the universe. There’s a cosmic speed limit, 186,000 miles per second, also known as the speed of light. Nothing can exceed that speed. It’s one of the best established principles in science. Believe it or not, travelling at near the speed of light transports you to the future.

To explain why, let’s dream up a science-fiction transportation system. Imagine a track that goes right around Earth, a track for a superfast train. We’re going to use this imaginary train to get as close as possible to the speed of light and see how it becomes a time machine. On board are passengers with a one-way ticket to the future. The train begins to accelerate, faster and faster. Soon it’s circling the Earth over and over again.

To approach the speed of light means circling the Earth pretty fast. Seven times a second. But no matter how much power the train has, it can never quite reach the speed of light, since the laws of physics forbid it. Instead, let’s say it gets close, just shy of that ultimate speed. Now something extraordinary happens. Time starts flowing slowly on board relative to the rest of the world, just like near the black hole, only more so. Everything on the train is in slow motion.

This happens to protect the speed limit, and it’s not hard to see why. Imagine a child running forwards up the train. Her forward speed is added to the speed of the train, so couldn’t she break the speed limit simply by accident? The answer is no. The laws of nature prevent the possibility by slowing down time onboard.

Now she can’t run fast enough to break the limit. Time will always slow down just enough to protect the speed limit. And from that fact comes the possibility of travelling many years into the future.

Imagine that the train left the station on January 1, 2050. It circles Earth over and over again for 100 years before finally coming to a halt on New Year’s Day, 2150. The passengers will have only lived one week because time is slowed down that much inside the train. When they got out they’d find a very different world from the one they’d left. In one week they’d have travelled 100 years into the future. Of course, building a train that could reach such a speed is quite impossible. But we have built something very like the train at the world’s largest particle accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland.

Deep underground, in a circular tunnel 16 miles long, is a stream of trillions of tiny particles. When the power is turned on they accelerate from zero to 60,000mph in a fraction of a second. Increase the power and the particles go faster and faster, until they’re whizzing around the tunnel 11,000 times a second, which is almost the speed of light. But just like the train, they never quite reach that ultimate speed. They can only get to 99.99 per cent of the limit. When that happens, they too start to travel in time. We know this because of some extremely short-lived particles, called pi-mesons. Ordinarily, they disintegrate after just 25 billionths of a second. But when they are accelerated to near-light speed they last 30 times longer.

It really is that simple. If we want to travel into the future, we just need to go fast. Really fast. And I think the only way we’re ever likely to do that is by going into space. The fastest manned vehicle in history was Apollo 10. It reached 25,000mph. But to travel in time we’ll have to go more than 2,000 times faster. And to do that we’d need a much bigger ship, a truly enormous machine. The ship would have to be big enough to carry a huge amount of fuel, enough to accelerate it to nearly the speed of light. Getting to just beneath the cosmic speed limit would require six whole years at full power.

The initial acceleration would be gentle because the ship would be so big and heavy. But gradually it would pick up speed and soon would be covering massive distances. In one week it would have reached the outer planets. After two years it would reach half-light speed and be far outside our solar system. Two years later it would be travelling at 90 per cent of the speed of light. Around 30 trillion miles away from Earth, and four years after launch, the ship would begin to travel in time. For every hour of time on the ship, two would pass on Earth. A similar situation to the spaceship that orbited the massive black hole.

After another two years of full thrust the ship would reach its top speed, 99 per cent of the speed of light. At this speed, a single day on board is a whole year of Earth time. Our ship would be truly flying into the future.

The slowing of time has another benefit. It means we could, in theory, travel extraordinary distances within one lifetime. A trip to the edge of the galaxy would take just 80 years. But the real wonder of our journey is that it reveals just how strange the universe is. It’s a universe where time runs at different rates in different places. Where tiny wormholes exist all around us. And where, ultimately, we might use our understanding of physics to become true voyagers through the fourth dimension.
Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/moslive/article-1269288/STEPHEN-HAWKING-How-build-time-machine.html

Bad Sunday!!

Today, Sunday October 14th, was really bad day. As my normal activity on Sunday, I wake up early in the morning to prepare up  for cycling down to Probolinggo with her. But, odds just fell in. I woke up unusually at 5, that means late. I wake up right at 4 as usual. I got up in hurry to bathroom to take bath, nothing as meal first thing. i just grabbed my bike and rolled on the pedal at unusual speed. I increased the speed as possible as I could. In fact, I degraded myself. Anyway, I might take the ride as my legs were able to. Right on my route, I was hyperventilating. Once I hit the major road to Probolinggo, I went follow behind a huge truck tail at moderate speed, which could’ve been over 45 km/h but I had to reserve my energy for back up home. So, I turned down the speed to around 35 km/h by letting the truck head ahead. With racing breath, I gave up; considering my bike design which is prior to cross country riding, it’s not designed for speed so I clocked to moderate speed through the street till I arrived in her house.

She had been waiting for a time. She was a bit disappointed. Normally, in this, I usually have a break moment to take down my racing breath in her house, but it didn’t happen today. Once I arrived in her house, she said to me to ride straight. On the other side, my stomach didn’t feel good. On the way, I was a bit in sorrow. I dropped into a retailer to get some water to refresh my throat. It was so hot more than I do usually. Then, we drop by at town square and next to harbor. That time, I was very starving. Damn!!!!!!!!!! So I invited her to have a breakfast with “Sego Jagung”. We got it at town square. The town square was always crowded by people, especially in the morning on Sunday. We were back to her house and had the breakfast. Once I was done with it, oh…man…..my stomach was unbearable. you know what I mean,right?

After I did some breaking, I decided to go home cycling. I had to run off 27 kms home. It was 9 o’clock. It gotta be very hot. After consuming 5 kms, my left knee just got hurt. I couldn’t bring the bike fast ride. In the street, I was hoping to arrive home as soon as possible cause my knee couldn’t push the pedal hard, only hope. And finally I arrived home. It took 2 hours for me to arrive home under the frying sun.

Akhirnya….

Setelah sekian lama menunggu,tak disangka-sangka apa yang aku inginkan aku dapatkan juga….Butuh 4 bulan menabung untuk mendapatkan sebuah motherboard dan processor…Dan ini hanya sekedar motherboard dan processor saja…untuk hardware yang lainnya, masih menyusul….
Untuk mendapatkan ini, selain menabung selama 4 bulan, dananya juga dikontribusi oleh hasil penjualan motheboard lamaku, yaitu GA-P41T-D3P dan processor Intel (Lupa serinya)…
Banyak cerita dan usaha yang tidak bisa ditukar dengan uang….apa yang tersimpan dalam komputer ini bukan hanya hardware, tetapi juga kisah / cerita yang benar2 menguras tenaga dan kesabaran…sebuah kesabaran yang menjelma sebuah komputer….untuk tujuan terakhir agar bisa disebut “The Gaming Rig”…..
Berikut adalah sepintas penampakannya:

Untuk sementara ini, spesifikasinya:
- Mobo: Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD5

- Procie: AMD FX 4100 (OC 3,6 GHz > 4,4 GHz)

- RAM: 2 x 2GB Patriot Sector 5 (1866 MHz)

- CPU Cooler: Thermaltake Frio

- PSU: High Power 700W Modular

- Harddisk: Western Digital Caviar Blue 250GB

- VGA: GT 430

Upgrade akan selalu berjalan…

 

Yang sangat disayangkan adalah VGAnya….
hanya itu yang membuat komputer ini kurang powerful…
Suatu saat pasti akan tercapai juga…
I live in this….

Difference of Level in Applying Javanese Language

CHAPTER I

Abstract

Language is a symbolized medium of communication to be provided in order to manage interaction from one to others. Language also gives us identical personality from individual differentiation. It is commonly implied with our understanding about one’s personality that is recognized by the way they provide language.
Culture is a sphere that consists of fragments. One of them is language. Culture changes certainly can change language shape, idiomatic structure, and so forth. Culture is hoped to be a composition in acquiring language. By understanding and observing culture, it is easier to acquire a certain language, which is originated from its culture it is from. Culture might bring different parts from that in each part of the world. That difference takes us to curiosity to dig more to know every aspects of life.
I, personally, through this work, shall be able to distinguish a different shape of language in Javanese environment, which applies several levels of language. In doing this, first we should recognize what kind of understandable point we can mark to move further to the ultimate point, which is not able to be reached out by our brain only a short timing as a blink of eyes do.
Ultimately, being clarified and discussed, the language is hopefully known with its function, which applies as part of ongoing-culture. The flexibility of language itself is depended on the run of characteristics of culture itself. Our duty is to discover the relationship between those parts from one to another.

CHAPTER II

Discussion

According to the fact, there are two local languages as common. Specifically, it would be simpler discussing one language only which contains correlation of similarities of them both.
In this session, Javanese is going to be discussed as it is personally more familiar to me. So it is possible to dig deeper into its core.
The followings are sampling dialogue of Javanese:

Dialogue 1

Bejo     : Kula nuwun … !
B. Supinem     : Mangga! O, nak Bejo. Kene, mlebu!
Bejo     : Inggih matur sembah nuwun.
B. Supinem     : Ono opo le?
Bejo     : Saderengipun nyuwun pangapunten, Bu. Menika kula diutus  bapak ngaturaken serat sedhahan kangge rapat mangke dalu. Menika seratipun.
B. Supinem     :  Iya, kesuwun. Bapakmu mau ngomong apa?
Bejo                  : Nggih namung kula dipunutus ngaturaken serat menika          kemawon. Menawi mekaten kula nyuwun pamit rumiyin, Bu…
B. Supinem     :  Lho, kok kesusu?
Bejo     : Inggih sampun, Mboten sisah. Kula selak kesesa badhe dhateng  dalemipun pak Joko.
B. Supinem     :  Ya wes yen ngono ngati-ati!!

Compare with this one:

Dialogue 2

Bejo    : Rif, kapan klenceran maneh?
Arif    : Terserah awakmu, Jo…
Bejo    : Lek klenceran maneh, ojo sore-sore…Mulih’e iku lo kebengen…
Arif    : Iyo, Jo!! La wingi awak dewe kan ngenteni Wisnu…Wisanu kuwi lo siang nggarai suwi…
Bejo    : Yo weslah…Sesuk lek klenceran maneh ngomong’o nang Wisnu dhisek…Ojo dhadhakan…Ngono carane yo Wisnu gak ono persiapan…
Arif    : Siap, Komandan!!
Bejo    : Heh, awakmu digolek’i makmu…
Arif    : Opo jare?
Bejo    : Yo mboh…Ndangan..

Supreme language in Javanese is commonly called Krama, and the lower level of language in Javanese is called Ngoko. The breakdown of Krama is Krama Andhap, Krama Lugu, and Krama Alus. In the suburban area, there commonly people make conversation through Krama Andhap. Still in this area, the senior citizens use Krama Lugu to establish communication with their generation fellows. As for the younger people, Krama Alus is used to speak to senior citizens. Therefore, the level of Javanese used currently by Bejo is Krama Alus.
The lower offspring of Javanese used commonly is Ngoko Lugu and Ngoko Alus. However, they both are not able to have a call formal language. Ngoko Lugu is said to be the lowest level of Javanese offspring. It is often found in daily life that is spoken directly by young generation to their fellows within the similar level.
Ngoko Alus is not either a formal language, even it sounds softer than Ngoko Lugu. This degree applies insertion of Krama vocabulary so that it is easily identified its basic characteristics that straightly differs from Ngoko Lugu. For more detail, the example will be given below.
“Panjenengan kok ora saghet tindak mriko Pak?”.
Through this dialogue, it is very obviously shown the difference between Ngoko Lugu and Ngoko Alus. We can infer that the dialogue is structured in Ngoko Alus. Specifically, the following vocabulary has made transformation level from Ngoko Lugu into Ngoko Alus.
1.    Panjenengan
2.    Saghet
3.    Tindak
4.    Mriko
Those words are taken from Krama level. Those on Ngoko Lugu will be the following:
1.    Sampeyan
2.    Iso
3.    Budhal
4.    Mrono
Having applied vocabulary from Krama level, the basic pattern of that sentence, which was originated from Ngoko Lugu, it has transformed into Ngoko Alus. This pattern of sentence is usually used by young people when they meet novices. This language function is to impress them, who are the novices, good manner.
In Ngoko Lugu, the display of that sentence may look like this:
“Sampeyan kok ora iso budhal mrono, Pak?”
In doing on the sentence, without giving any other transformation, it is categorized Ngoko Lugu. It is the basic point of language that Ngoko Alus has transformed from.
Javanese is applied in different places in Java Island. That used in Yogyakarta is the supreme level known as a matter of fact that it is the first place that language has taken. It is the main area of Javanese.
Also, Javanese is used in Surabaya, Banyuwangi, Gresik, and others. Javanese in each of those places are different from one to another. Each part has their own division in applying Javanese. Furthermore, many sources imply that difference has been there due to effect of culture, which is different too from one to another.

CHAPTER III

Closure

3.1.    Conclusion
There are many ways to establish communication in Javanese. Since, there are factors that may make difference from one place to another. It is culture. Culture may be defined as ways of life. Therefore, Javanese spoken in different places is also different. This is caused by the way the people live their life.
Still, Javanese also has different level for communication for each generation. It is also affected by culture movement in order to maintain former Javanese culture. Beyond that, Javanese also contains codes that guide its people to go with ways how they should behave in Javanese life.

3.2.    Suggestion
As not to leave this work with no further attention, there is importance to do more with this. Since there have been mistakes, errors, and has been misinformed in obtaining data; I recommend others, who take this paper for reading material to expand knowledge, review and study to give advanced addition to complete more comprehensible on this writing. Personally, I suggest a better instruction for future which is step by step may reach the closest perfection with the work.

MANAJEMEN SEKOLAH : Pengertian, Fungsi dan Bidang Manajemen

oleh : Akhmad Sudrajat, M.Pd.

A. Pengertian Manajemen Sekolah

Dalam konteks pendidikan, memang masih ditemukan kontroversi dan inkonsistensi dalam penggunaan istilah manajemen. Di satu pihak ada yang tetap cenderung menggunakan istilah manajemen, sehingga dikenal dengan istilah manajemen pendidikan. Di lain pihak, tidak sedikit pula yang menggunakan istilah administrasi sehingga dikenal istilah adminitrasi pendidikan. Dalam studi ini, penulis cenderung untuk mengidentikkan keduanya, sehingga kedua istilah ini dapat digunakan dengan makna yang sama.
Selanjutnya, di bawah ini akan disampaikan beberapa pengertian umum tentang manajemen yang disampaikan oleh beberapa ahli. Dari Kathryn . M. Bartol dan David C. Martin yang dikutip oleh A.M. Kadarman SJ dan Jusuf Udaya (1995) memberikan rumusan bahwa :

“Manajemen adalah proses untuk mencapai tujuan – tujuan organisasi dengan melakukan kegiatan dari empat fungsi utama yaitu merencanakan (planning), mengorganisasi (organizing), memimpin (leading), dan mengendalikan (controlling). Dengan demikian, manajemen adalah sebuah kegiatan yang berkesinambungan”.

Sedangkan dari Stoner sebagaimana dikutip oleh T. Hani Handoko (1995) mengemukakan bahwa:

“Manajemen adalah proses perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pengarahan, dan pengawasan usaha-usaha para anggota organisasi dan penggunaan sumber daya-sumber daya organisasi lainnya agar mencapai tujuan organisasi yang telah ditetapkan”.

Secara khusus dalam konteks pendidikan, Djam’an Satori (1980) memberikan pengertian manajemen pendidikan dengan menggunakan istilah administrasi pendidikan yang diartikan sebagai “keseluruhan proses kerjasama dengan memanfaatkan semua sumber personil dan materil yang tersedia dan sesuai untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan yang telah ditetapkan secara efektif dan efisien”. Sementara itu, Hadari Nawawi (1992) mengemukakan bahwa “administrasi pendidikan sebagai rangkaian kegiatan atau keseluruhan proses pengendalian usaha kerjasama sejumlah orang untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan secara sistematis yang diselenggarakan di lingkungan tertentu terutama berupa lembaga pendidikan formal”.

Meski ditemukan pengertian manajemen atau administrasi yang beragam, baik yang bersifat umum maupun khusus tentang kependidikan, namun secara esensial dapat ditarik benang merah tentang pengertian manajemen pendidikan, bahwa : (1) manajemen pendidikan merupakan suatu kegiatan; (2) manajemen pendidikan memanfaatkan berbagai sumber daya; dan (3) manajemen pendidikan berupaya untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu.

B. Fungsi Manajemen

Dikemukakan di atas bahwa manajemen pendidikan merupakan suatu kegiatan. Kegiatan dimaksud tak lain adalah tindakan-tindakan yang mengacu kepada fungsi-fungsi manajamen. Berkenaan dengan fungsi-fungsi manajemen ini, H. Siagian (1977) mengungkapkan pandangan dari beberapa ahli, sebagai berikut:

Menurut G.R. Terry terdapat empat fungsi manajemen, yaitu :
(1) planning (perencanaan);
(2) organizing (pengorganisasian);
(3) actuating (pelaksanaan); dan
(4) controlling (pengawasan).

Sedangkan menurut Henry Fayol terdapat lima fungsi manajemen, meliputi :
(1) planning (perencanaan);
(2) organizing (pengorganisasian);
(3) commanding (pengaturan);
(4) coordinating (pengkoordinasian); dan
(5) controlling (pengawasan).

Sementara itu, Harold Koontz dan Cyril O’ Donnel mengemukakan lima fungsi manajemen, mencakup :
(1) planning (perencanaan);
(2) organizing (pengorganisasian);
(3) staffing (penentuan staf);
(4) directing (pengarahan); dan
(5) controlling (pengawasan).

Selanjutnya, L. Gullick mengemukakan tujuh fungsi manajemen, yaitu :
(1) planning (perencanaan);
(2) organizing (pengorganisasian);
(3) staffing (penentuan staf);
(4) directing (pengarahan);
(5) coordinating (pengkoordinasian);
(6) reporting (pelaporan); dan
(7) budgeting (penganggaran).

Untuk memahami lebih jauh tentang fungsi-fungsi manajemen pendidikan, di bawah akan dipaparkan tentang fungsi-fungsi manajemen pendidikan dalam perspektif persekolahan, dengan merujuk kepada pemikiran G.R. Terry, meliputi : (1) perencanaan (planning); (2) pengorganisasian (organizing); (3) pelaksanaan (actuating) dan (4) pengawasan (controlling).

1. Perencanaan (planning)

Perencanaan tidak lain merupakan kegiatan untuk menetapkan tujuan yang akan dicapai beserta cara-cara untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut. Sebagaimana disampaikan oleh Louise E. Boone dan David L. Kurtz (1984) bahwa: planning may be defined as the proses by which manager set objective, asses the future, and develop course of action designed to accomplish these objective. Sedangkan T. Hani Handoko (1995) mengemukakan bahwa :
“ Perencanaan (planning) adalah pemilihan atau penetapan tujuan organisasi dan penentuan strategi, kebijaksanaan, proyek, program, prosedur, metode, sistem, anggaran dan standar yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai tujuan. Pembuatan keputusan banyak terlibat dalam fungsi ini.”

Arti penting perencanaan terutama adalah memberikan kejelasan arah bagi setiap kegiatan, sehingga setiap kegiatan dapat diusahakan dan dilaksanakan seefisien dan seefektif mungkin. T. Hani Handoko mengemukakan sembilan manfaat perencanaan bahwa perencanaan: (a) membantu manajemen untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan perubahan-perubahan lingkungan; (b) membantu dalam kristalisasi persesuaian pada masalah-masalah utama; (c) memungkinkan manajer memahami keseluruhan gambaran; (d) membantu penempatan tanggung jawab lebih tepat; (e) memberikan cara pemberian perintah untuk beroperasi; (f) memudahkan dalam melakukan koordinasi di antara berbagai bagian organisasi; (g) membuat tujuan lebih khusus, terperinci dan lebih mudah dipahami; (h) meminimumkan pekerjaan yang tidak pasti; dan (i) menghemat waktu, usaha dan dana.

Indriyo Gito Sudarmo dan Agus Mulyono (1996) mengemukakan langkah-langkah pokok dalam perencanaan, yaitu :

  1. Penentuan tujuan dengan memenuhi persyaratan sebagai berikut : (a) menggunakan kata-kata yang sederhana, (b) mempunyai sifat fleksibel, (c) mempunyai sifat stabilitas, (d) ada dalam perimbangan sumber daya, dan (e) meliputi semua tindakan yang diperlukan.
  2. Pendefinisian gabungan situasi secara baik, yang meliputi unsur sumber daya manusia, sumber daya alam, dan sumber daya modal.
  3. Merumuskan kegiatan yang akan dilaksanakan secara jelas dan tegas.

Hal senada dikemukakan pula oleh T. Hani Handoko (1995) bahwa terdapat empat tahap dalam perencanaan, yaitu : (a) menetapkan tujuan atau serangkaian tujuan; (b) merumuskan keadaan saat ini; (c) mengidentifikasi segala kemudahan dan hambatan; (d) mengembangkan rencana atau serangkaian kegiatan untuk pencapaian tujuan.
Pada bagian lain, Indriyo Gito Sudarmo dan Agus Mulyono (1996) mengemukakan bahwa atas dasar luasnya cakupan masalah serta jangkauan yang terkandung dalam suatu perencanaan, maka perencanaan dapat dibedakan dalam tiga bentuk, yaitu : (1) rencana global yang merupakan penentuan tujuan secara menyeluruh dan jangka panjang, (2) rencana strategis merupakan rencana yang disusun guna menentukan tujuan-tujuan kegiatan atau tugas yang mempunyai arti strategis dan mempunyai dimensi jangka panjang, dan (3) rencana operasional yang merupakan rencana kegiatan-kegiatan yang berjangka pendek guna menopang pencapaian tujuan jangka panjang, baik dalam perencanaan global maupun perencanaan strategis.

Perencanaan strategik akhir-akhir ini menjadi sangat penting sejalan dengan perkembangan lingkungan yang sangat pesat dan sangat sulit diprediksikan, seperti perkembangan teknologi yang sangat pesat, pekerjaan manajerial yang semakin kompleks, dan percepatan perubahan lingkungan eksternal lainnya.
Pada bagian lain, T. Hani Handoko memaparkan secara ringkas tentang langkah-langkah dalam penyusunan perencanaan strategik, sebagai berikut:

  1. Penentuan misi dan tujuan, yang mencakup pernyataan umum tentang misi, falsafah dan tujuan. Perumusan misi dan tujuan ini merupakan tanggung jawab kunci manajer puncak. Perumusan ini dipengaruhi oleh nilai-nilai yang dibawakan manajer. Nilai-nilai ini dapat mencakup masalah-masalah sosial dan etika, atau masalah-masalah umum seperti macam produk atau jasa yang akan diproduksi atau cara pengoperasian perusahaan.
  2. Pengembangan profil perusahaan, yang mencerminkan kondisi internal dan kemampuan perusahaan dan merupakan hasil analisis internal untuk mengidentifikasi tujuan dan strategi sekarang, serta memerinci kuantitas dan kualitas sumber daya -sumber daya perusahaan yang tersedia. Profil perusahaan menunjukkan kesuksesan perusahaan di masa lalu dan kemampuannya untuk mendukung pelaksanaan kegiatan sebagai implementasi strategi dalam pencapaian tujuan di masa yang akan datang.
  3. Analisa lingkungan eksternal, dengan maksud untuk mengidentifikasi cara-cara dan dalam apa perubahan-perubahan lingkungan dapat mempengaruhi organisasi. Disamping itu, perusahaan perlu mengidentifikasi lingkungan lebih khusus, seperti para penyedia, pasar organisasi, para pesaing, pasar tenaga kerja dan lembaga-lembaga keuangan, di mana kekuatan-kekuatan ini akan mempengaruhi secara langsung operasi perusahaan.

Meski pendapat di atas lebih menggambarkan perencanaan strategik dalam konteks bisnis, namun secara esensial konsep perencanaan strategik ini dapat diterapkan pula dalam konteks pendidikan, khususnya pada tingkat persekolahan, karena memang pendidikan di Indonesia dewasa ini sedang menghadapi berbagai tantangan internal maupun eksternal, sehingga membutuhkan perencanaan yang benar-benar dapat menjamin sustanabilitas pendidikan itu sendiri.

2. Pengorganisasian (organizing)

Fungsi manajemen berikutnya adalah pengorganisasian (organizing). George R. Terry (1986) mengemukakan bahwa :
“Pengorganisasian adalah tindakan mengusahakan hubungan-hubungan kelakuan yang efektif antara orang-orang, sehingga mereka dapat bekerja sama secara efisien, dan memperoleh kepuasan pribadi dalam melaksanakan tugas-tugas tertentu, dalam kondisi lingkungan tertentu guna mencapai tujuan atau sasaran tertentu”.
Lousie E. Boone dan David L. Kurtz (1984) mengartikan pengorganisasian : “… as the act of planning and implementing organization structure. It is the process of arranging people and physical resources to carry out plans and acommplishment organizational obtective”.
Dari kedua pendapat di atas, dapat dipahami bahwa pengorganisasian pada dasarnya merupakan upaya untuk melengkapi rencana-rencana yang telah dibuat dengan susunan organisasi pelaksananya. Hal yang penting untuk diperhatikan dalam pengorganisasian adalah bahwa setiap kegiatan harus jelas siapa yang mengerjakan, kapan dikerjakan, dan apa targetnya.
Berkenaan dengan pengorganisasian ini, Hadari Nawawi (1992) mengemukakan beberapa asas dalam organisasi, diantaranya adalah : (a) organisasi harus profesional, yaitu dengan pembagian satuan kerja yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan; (b) pengelompokan satuan kerja harus menggambarkan pembagian kerja; (c) organisasi harus mengatur pelimpahan wewenang dan tanggung jawab; (d) organisasi harus mencerminkan rentangan kontrol; (e) organisasi harus mengandung kesatuan perintah; dan (f) organisasi harus fleksibel dan seimbang.
Ernest Dale seperti dikutip oleh T. Hani Handoko mengemukakan tiga langkah dalam proses pengorganisasian, yaitu : (a) pemerincian seluruh pekerjaan yang harus dilaksanakan untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi; (b) pembagian beban pekerjaan total menjadi kegiatan-kegiatan yang logik dapat dilaksanakan oleh satu orang; dan (c) pengadaan dan pengembangan suatu mekanisme untuk mengkoordinasikan pekerjaan para anggota menjadi kesatuan yang terpadu dan harmonis.

3. Pelaksanaan (actuating)

Dari seluruh rangkaian proses manajemen, pelaksanaan (actuating) merupakan fungsi manajemen yang paling utama. Dalam fungsi perencanaan dan pengorganisasian lebih banyak berhubungan dengan aspek-aspek abstrak proses manajemen, sedangkan fungsi actuating justru lebih menekankan pada kegiatan yang berhubungan langsung dengan orang-orang dalam organisasi
Dalam hal ini, George R. Terry (1986) mengemukakan bahwa actuating merupakan usaha menggerakkan anggota-anggota kelompok sedemikian rupa hingga mereka berkeinginan dan berusaha untuk mencapai sasaran perusahaan dan sasaran anggota-anggota perusahaan tersebut oleh karena para anggota itu juga ingin mencapai sasaran-sasaran tersebut.
Dari pengertian di atas, pelaksanaan (actuating) tidak lain merupakan upaya untuk menjadikan perencanaan menjadi kenyataan, dengan melalui berbagai pengarahan dan pemotivasian agar setiap karyawan dapat melaksanakan kegiatan secara optimal sesuai dengan peran, tugas dan tanggung jawabnya.
Hal yang penting untuk diperhatikan dalam pelaksanan (actuating) ini adalah bahwa seorang karyawan akan termotivasi untuk mengerjakan sesuatu jika : (1) merasa yakin akan mampu mengerjakan, (2) yakin bahwa pekerjaan tersebut memberikan manfaat bagi dirinya, (3) tidak sedang dibebani oleh problem pribadi atau tugas lain yang lebih penting, atau mendesak, (4) tugas tersebut merupakan kepercayaan bagi yang bersangkutan dan (5) hubungan antar teman dalam organisasi tersebut harmonis.

4. Pengawasan (controlling)

Pengawasan (controlling) merupakan fungsi manajemen yang tidak kalah pentingnya dalam suatu organisasi. Semua fungsi terdahulu, tidak akan efektif tanpa disertai fungsi pengawasan. Dalam hal ini, Louis E. Boone dan David L. Kurtz (1984) memberikan rumusan tentang pengawasan sebagai : “… the process by which manager determine wether actual operation are consistent with plans”.
Sementara itu, Robert J. Mocker sebagaimana disampaikan oleh T. Hani Handoko (1995) mengemukakan definisi pengawasan yang di dalamnya memuat unsur esensial proses pengawasan, bahwa :
“Pengawasan manajemen adalah suatu usaha sistematik untuk menetapkan standar pelaksanaan dengan tujuan – tujuan perencanaan, merancang sistem informasi umpan balik, membandingkan kegiatan nyata dengan standar yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya, menentukan dan mengukur penyimpangan-penyimpangan, serta mengambil tindakan koreksi yang diperlukan untuk menjamin bahwa semua sumber daya perusahaan dipergunakan dengan cara paling efektif dan efisien dalam pencapaian tujuan-tujuan perusahaan.”
Dengan demikian, pengawasan merupakan suatu kegiatan yang berusaha untuk mengendalikan agar pelaksanaan dapat berjalan sesuai dengan rencana dan memastikan apakah tujuan organisasi tercapai. Apabila terjadi penyimpangan di mana letak penyimpangan itu dan bagaimana pula tindakan yang diperlukan untuk mengatasinya.
Selanjutnya dikemukakan pula oleh T. Hani Handoko bahwa proses pengawasan memiliki lima tahapan, yaitu : (a) penetapan standar pelaksanaan; (b) penentuan pengukuran pelaksanaan kegiatan; (c) pengukuran pelaksanaan kegiatan nyata; (d) pembandingan pelaksanaan kegiatan dengan standar dan penganalisaan penyimpangan-penyimpangan; dan (e) pengambilan tindakan koreksi, bila diperlukan.
Fungsi-fungsi manajemen ini berjalan saling berinteraksi dan saling kait mengkait antara satu dengan lainnya, sehingga menghasilkan apa yang disebut dengan proses manajemen. Dengan demikian, proses manajemen sebenarnya merupakan proses interaksi antara berbagai fungsi manajemen.

Dalam perspektif persekolahan, agar tujuan pendidikan di sekolah dapat tercapai secara efektif dan efisien, maka proses manajemen pendidikan memiliki peranan yang amat vital. Karena bagaimana pun sekolah merupakan suatu sistem yang di dalamnya melibatkan berbagai komponen dan sejumlah kegiatan yang perlu dikelola secara baik dan tertib. Sekolah tanpa didukung proses manajemen yang baik, boleh jadi hanya akan menghasilkan kesemrawutan lajunya organisasi, yang pada gilirannya tujuan pendidikan pun tidak akan pernah tercapai secara semestinya.
Dengan demikian, setiap kegiatan pendidikan di sekolah harus memiliki perencanaan yang jelas dan realisitis, pengorganisasian yang efektif dan efisien, pengerahan dan pemotivasian seluruh personil sekolah untuk selalu dapat meningkatkan kualitas kinerjanya, dan pengawasan secara berkelanjutan.

C. Bidang Kegiatan Pendidikan

Berbicara tentang kegiatan pendidikan, di bawah ini beberapa pandangan dari para ahli tentang bidang-bidang kegiatan yang menjadi wilayah garapan manajemen pendidikan. Ngalim Purwanto (1986) mengelompokkannya ke dalam tiga bidang garapan yaitu :

  1. Administrasi material, yaitu kegiatan yang menyangkut bidang-bidang materi/ benda-benda, seperti ketatausahaan sekolah, administrasi keuangan, gedung dan alat-alat perlengkapan sekolah dan lain-lain.
  2. Administrasi personal, mencakup di dalamnya administrasi personal guru dan pegawai sekolah, juga administrasi murid. Dalam hal ini masalah kepemimpinan dan supervisi atau kepengawasan memegang peranan yang sangat penting.
  3. Administrasi kurikulum, seperti tugas mengajar guru-guru, penyusunan sylabus atau rencana pengajaran tahunan, persiapan harian dan mingguan dan sebagainya.

Hal serupa dikemukakan pula oleh M. Rifa’i (1980) bahwa bidang-bidang administrasi pendidikan terdiri dari :

  1. Bidang kependidikan atau bidang edukatif, yang menyangkut kurikulum, metode dan cara mengajar, evaluasi dan sebagainya.
  2. Bidang personil, yang mencakup unsur-unsur manusia yang belajar, yang mengajar, dan personil lain yang berhubungan dengan kegiatan belajar mengajar.
  3. Bidang alat dan keuangan, sebagai alat-alat pembantu untuk melancarkan siatuasi belajar mengajar dan untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan sebaik-baiknya.

Sementara itu, Thomas J. Sergiovani sebagimana dikutip oleh Uhar Suharsaputra (2002) mengemukakan delapan bidang administrasi pendidikan, mencakup : (1) instruction and curriculum development; (2) pupil personnel; (3) community school leadership; (4) staff personnel; (5) school plant; (6) school trasportation; (7) organization and structure dan (8) School finance and business management.

Di lain pihak, Direktorat Pendidikan Menengah Umum Depdiknas (1999) telah menerbitkan buku Panduan Manajemen Sekolah, yang didalamnya mengetengahkan bidang-bidang kegiatan manajemen pendidikan, meliputi: (1) manajemen kurikulum; (2) manajemen personalia; (3) manajemen kesiswaan; (4) manajemen keuangan; (5) manajemen perawatan preventif sarana dan prasarana sekolah.

Dari beberapa pendapat di atas, agaknya yang perlu digarisbawahi yaitu mengenai bidang administrasi pendidikan yang dikemukakan oleh Thomas J. Sergiovani. Dalam konteks pendidikan di Indonesia saat ini, pandangan Thomas J. Sergiovani kiranya belum sepenuhnya dapat dilaksanakan, terutama dalam bidang school transportation dan business management. Dengan alasan tertentu, kebijakan umum pendidikan nasional belum dapat menjangkau ke arah sana. Kendati demikian, dalam kerangka peningkatkan mutu pendidikan, ke depannya pemikiran ini sangat menarik untuk diterapkan menjadi kebijakan pendidikan di Indonesia.

Merujuk kepada kebijakan Direktorat Pendidikan Menengah Umum Depdiknas dalam buku Panduan Manajemen Sekolah, berikut ini akan diuraikan secara ringkas tentang bidang-bidang kegiatan pendidikan di sekolah, yang mencakup :

1. Manajemen kurikulum

Manajemen kurikulum merupakan subtansi manajemen yang utama di sekolah. Prinsip dasar manajemen kurikulum ini adalah berusaha agar proses pembelajaran dapat berjalan dengan baik, dengan tolok ukur pencapaian tujuan oleh siswa dan mendorong guru untuk menyusun dan terus menerus menyempurnakan strategi pembelajarannya. Tahapan manajemen kurikulum di sekolah dilakukan melalui empat tahap : (a) perencanaan; (b) pengorganisasian dan koordinasi; (c) pelaksanaan; dan (d) pengendalian.
Dalam konteks Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP), Tita Lestari (2006) mengemukakan tentang siklus manajemen kurikulum yang terdiri dari empat tahap :

  1. Tahap perencanaan; meliputi langkah-langkah sebagai : (1) analisis kebutuhan; (2) merumuskan dan menjawab pertanyaan filosofis; (3) menentukan disain kurikulum; dan (4) membuat rencana induk (master plan): pengembangan, pelaksanaan, dan penilaian.
  2. Tahap pengembangan; meliputi langkah-langkah : (1) perumusan rasional atau dasar pemikiran; (2) perumusan visi, misi, dan tujuan; (3) penentuan struktur dan isi program; (4) pemilihan dan pengorganisasian materi; (5) pengorganisasian kegiatan pembelajaran; (6) pemilihan sumber, alat, dan sarana belajar; dan (7) penentuan cara mengukur hasil belajar.
  3. Tahap implementasi atau pelaksanaan; meliputi langkah-langkah: (1) penyusunan rencana dan program pembelajaran (Silabus, RPP: Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran); (2) penjabaran materi (kedalaman dan keluasan); (3) penentuan strategi dan metode pembelajaran; (4) penyediaan sumber, alat, dan sarana pembelajaran; (5) penentuan cara dan alat penilaian proses dan hasil belajar; dan (6) setting lingkungan pembelajaran
  4. Tahap penilaian; terutama dilakukan untuk melihat sejauhmana kekuatan dan kelemahan dari kurikulum yang dikembangkan, baik bentuk penilaian formatif maupun sumatif. Penilailain kurikulum dapat mencakup Konteks, input, proses, produk (CIPP) : Penilaian konteks: memfokuskan pada pendekatan sistem dan tujuan, kondisi aktual, masalah-masalah dan peluang. Penilaian Input: memfokuskan pada kemampuan sistem, strategi pencapaian tujuan, implementasi design dan cost benefit dari rancangan. Penilaian proses memiliki fokus yaitu pada penyediaan informasi untuk pembuatan keputusan dalam melaksanakan program. Penilaian product berfokus pada mengukur pencapaian proses dan pada akhir program (identik dengan evaluasi sumatif)

2. Manajemen Kesiswaan

Dalam manajemen kesiswaan terdapat empat prinsip dasar, yaitu : (a) siswa harus diperlakukan sebagai subyek dan bukan obyek, sehingga harus didorong untuk berperan serta dalam setiap perencanaan dan pengambilan keputusan yang terkait dengan kegiatan mereka; (b) kondisi siswa sangat beragam, ditinjau dari kondisi fisik, kemampuan intelektual, sosial ekonomi, minat dan seterusnya. Oleh karena itu diperlukan wahana kegiatan yang beragam, sehingga setiap siswa memiliki wahana untuk berkembang secara optimal; (c) siswa hanya termotivasi belajar, jika mereka menyenangi apa yang diajarkan; dan (d) pengembangan potensi siswa tidak hanya menyangkut ranah kognitif, tetapi juga ranah afektif, dan psikomotor.

3. Manajemen personalia

Terdapat empat prinsip dasar manajemen personalia yaitu : (a) dalam mengembangkan sekolah, sumber daya manusia adalah komponen paling berharga; (b) sumber daya manusia akan berperan secara optimal jika dikelola dengan baik, sehingga mendukung tujuan institusional; (c) kultur dan suasana organisasi di sekolah, serta perilaku manajerial sekolah sangat berpengaruh terhadap pencapaian tujuan pengembangan sekolah; dan (d) manajemen personalia di sekolah pada prinsipnya mengupayakan agar setiap warga dapat bekerja sama dan saling mendukung untuk mencapai tujuan sekolah.
Disamping faktor ketersediaan sumber daya manusia, hal yang amat penting dalam manajamen personalia adalah berkenaan penguasaan kompetensi dari para personil di sekolah. Oleh karena itu, upaya pengembangan kompetensi dari setiap personil sekolah menjadi mutlak diperlukan.

4. Manajemen keuangan

Manajemen keuangan di sekolah terutama berkenaan dengan kiat sekolah dalam menggali dana, kiat sekolah dalam mengelola dana, pengelolaan keuangan dikaitkan dengan program tahunan sekolah, cara mengadministrasikan dana sekolah, dan cara melakukan pengawasan, pengendalian serta pemeriksaan.
Inti dari manajemen keuangan adalah pencapaian efisiensi dan efektivitas. Oleh karena itu, disamping mengupayakan ketersediaan dana yang memadai untuk kebutuhan pembangunan maupun kegiatan rutin operasional di sekolah, juga perlu diperhatikan faktor akuntabilitas dan transparansi setiap penggunaan keuangan baik yang bersumber pemerintah, masyarakat dan sumber-sumber lainnya.

5. Manajemen perawatan preventif sarana dan prasana sekolah

Manajemen perawatan preventif sarana dan prasana sekolah merupakan tindakan yang dilakukan secara periodik dan terencana untuk merawat fasilitas fisik, seperti gedung, mebeler, dan peralatan sekolah lainnya, dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan kinerja, memperpanjang usia pakai, menurunkan biaya perbaikan dan menetapkan biaya efektif perawatan sarana dan pra sarana sekolah.
Dalam manajemen ini perlu dibuat program perawatan preventif di sekolah dengan cara pembentukan tim pelaksana, membuat daftar sarana dan pra saran, menyiapkan jadwal kegiatan perawatan, menyiapkan lembar evaluasi untuk menilai hasil kerja perawatan pada masing-masing bagian dan memberikan penghargaan bagi mereka yang berhasil meningkatkan kinerja peralatan sekolah dalam rangka meningkatkan kesadaran merawat sarana dan prasarana sekolah.
Sedangkan untuk pelaksanaannya dilakukan : pengarahan kepada tim pelaksana, mengupayakan pemantauan bulanan ke lokasi tempat sarana dan prasarana, menyebarluaskan informasi tentang program perawatan preventif untuk seluruh warga sekolah, dan membuat program lomba perawatan terhadap sarana dan fasilitas sekolah untuk memotivasi warga sekolah.

Gombal dikit ah……..

There’s a love that I miss…
But there’s nothing to come…
Even I’m lonely like this…
This is what I have become…

Without you, I’m losing my heartbeat…
Cause your life is my breath…
Without you, I cannot walk down the street…
Or I’ll soon come in the death…

Before the birds start to fly…
They’re in the trees singing…
The sun is up in the sky…
So I wanna say “Good morning!!!”…

I hope today you’ll be fine…
Cause this day is amazing…
Before the sun starts to shine…
I’d like to say “Good morning!!!”…

You know now I’m on a train…
For a distance to home to gain…
Anything I feel is nothing but pain…
That I hope to be washed away by the rain…

It will take so many hours…
To reach the frozen Arctic land…
For the romance of ours…
I won’t let go off your hand…

I’ll never break your heart in two…
Cause our worlds become one…
Whatever that you do…
I swear I’ll never run…

No beat without you…
There’ll be loneliness instead…
To the love, I’d not read it in two…
Or a life will be dead…

I’m sticking around at railway station…
Standing waiting for the train to arrive…
For you is nothing but affection…
That will forever survive…

Apalah arti pujangga…
Bila tak bias berikan makna…
Tak peduli cinta mana yang ku bangga…
Kau pelita hidupku yang merona…

Kamu nun jauh disana…
Tiada hati ingin terbelah…
Tak penting kita dimana…
Cinta kita takkan pernah pecah…

I wrote it no intention…
I didn’t think it would happen to be poetry…
That for you I have affection…
Is what I do truly…

There’s an angel above me…
Asking one question to five…
Whatever the love will be…
It belongs to my life…

You’re not gone but you’re not here…
I’ll still keep you in mind however…
Everything was done even you didn’t hear…
I’ll wish you were mine forever…

Just keep yourself happy…
Cause you’re in my soul…
Don’t you ever worry, honey…
Everything is under control…

Dan tetap aku pertanyakan…
Adakah hidup yang gersang…
Tanpa kutemukan jawaban…
Kulihat lautan dimana aku berenang…
Arungi sandiwara yang kujadikan peran…
Ditemani lagu yang menjadi dendang…
Lalu kuberjalan diatas pelukan…
Kutemukan sebuah tembang…
Yang alunkan sejuta segan…
Untuk aku yang membawa sejuta bimbang…

I never wanna lose you…
Please don’t ever leave me lonely…
I love you and always do…
For a romance to hold softly…
Aku perih berbakut luka…
Lukanya menyayat jiwa…
Tentangmu segalanya bukanlah duka…
Karena kita ciptakan canda dan tawa…

I was stuck working on the Instructional Design…
Cause it’s totally confusing…
Before the sun starts to shine…
I’d like to say “Good morning!!!”…

This day starts beautifully…
The sun’s up warmly shining…
This I’m sitting softly…
And not to forget to say “Good morning!!!”…

Anything that I knew…
Was all that I do…
I wouldn’t fall for anyone new…
Cause my love is nobody but you…

I don’t wanna fight…
Cause I know how to make it right…
Even here I have no light…
I wanna say back “Good night!!!”…

Everything I ever knew…
Is a lie without you…
To me you’re the sign of my breath…
That takes me away from the death…

Nobody but you…
I don’t need anybody…
I couldn’t fall for anyone new…
Cause you’re all that I see…

I know I’m losing you…
But not a thing to worry…
I’ll come if you want me to…
And I’ll get there in hurry…

For the fish, I got the sight…
So I can watch them swim…
I wish to wish you good night…
And have nice dream…

Aku kan tikamkan kasihku hingga ke lubuk hati…
Laksana tombak mengadu sayat…
Kepada kekasih cintaku takkan pernah mati…
Meski ia kini tak bersamping hayat…

The perfume that you wear…
Smell wonderful like lavender…
I’ll be in touch of your hair…
As it’s to be my sweetener…

Your face to me is a flower…
That grows beautifully fast…
Your love gives me a romance lover…
That will forever last…

I once saw a ball, called the Sun…
To me, it’s a sign of a fun…
The girls meeting it, likely most to run…
Don’t be afraid, girls…It’s absolutely not a gun…

Sleepless had got me bad…
Never had any other dreams ever made…
Whatever not those instantly make me sad…
Like a moon rotating on the shade…

Cari Aris di Kalisat…
Yang ada Cuma komodo…
Ryan itu makhluk sesat…
Karena dia seperti kebo…

Malam ini aku sangat gemeter…
Mataku muter-muter …
Gara-gara sampe skarang mlotot ke computer…
Ku lakuin sambil makan  pepper…
Ngetik-ngetik smp jari kuter…
Bhkan smp mlungker…
Demi selesainya speaking paper…

Aris Kalisat itu emg mbulek..
Andika itu emg gk beres…
Lhat Aris situ enek…
Kyak Ryan waktu makan memes…

Kedondong dimakan Aris…
Cacing ditelen ryan…
Jadi anak jangan narsis…
Kalo gak mau ku telan…

Ryan lahir di neraka…
Aris lahir di surge…
Kita punya rambut sama…
Bentuknya kok gini ya?…

Bila kau pilih jalan sesat…
Maka hidupmu akam terasa cepat…
Carilah jalan hidup yang tepat…
Agar kau sampai di surge dengan selamat…
Memang terkadang itu terasa tersendat…
Dan itu bukan berarti Sang Kuasa jahat…
Jadi, marilah kita bertobat…
Sebelum segalanya menjadi terlambat…

Aku takkan pernah lelah…
Untuk mencari cinta yang indah…
Laksana juang cipta madu sang lebah…
Meskipun jantung ini akan selamanya pecah…
Perang ini tak membuat harga diriku rendah…
Demi jiwa yang terbelah…
Pengorbanan cinta ini takbisa ku cegah…
Itu bukan namanya serakah…
Karena perjuangan ini tak merenggut dari yang lemah…
Dan meskipun hatiku begitu resah…
Aku tetap pantang menyerah…
Karena jiwaku akan selalu berkobat merah…